PACB - 2018 Q1 - Save As

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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2018



Or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from             to             

Commission File Number 001-34899

 

Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 



 

Delaware

16-1590339

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)



 

1305 O’Brien Drive

Menlo Park, CA 94025

94025

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(650) 521-8000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 



 

 

 



 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer   



 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company



 

 

 



 

Emerging growth company




 

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If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  



Number of shares outstanding of the issuer’s common stock as of April 30, 2018:  131,876,642  

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TABLE OF CONTENTS







 



PAGE No.



 

PART I  - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 



 

Item 1. Financial Statements (unaudited):

 



 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 



 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the Three-Month Periods Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 



 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three-Month Periods Ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 



 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements 



 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 

19 



 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 

25 



 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures 

25 



 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 



 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings 

26 



 

Item 1A. Risk Factors 

27 



 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds 

47 



 

Item 3. Default Upon Senior Securities 

47 



 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 

47 



 

Item 5. Other Information 

47 



 

Item 6. Exhibits 

47 







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PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements

PACIFIC BIOSCIENCES OF CALIFORNIA, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Unaudited)







 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 



March 31,

 

December 31,

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

2018

 

2017

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

25,458 

 

$

16,507 

Investments

 

53,802 

 

 

46,365 

Accounts receivable

 

8,452 

 

 

13,433 

Inventory

 

25,930 

 

 

23,065 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

2,057 

 

 

2,249 

Total current assets

 

115,699 

 

 

101,619 

Property and equipment, net

 

36,704 

 

 

37,920 

Long-term restricted cash

 

4,500 

 

 

4,500 

Other long-term assets

 

46 

 

 

45 

Total assets

$

156,949 

 

$

144,084 

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

$

8,567 

 

$

9,093 

Accrued expenses

 

10,243 

 

 

12,618 

Deferred service revenue, current

 

5,993 

 

 

6,319 

Other liabilities, current

 

145 

 

 

605 

Total current liabilities

 

24,948 

 

 

28,635 

Deferred service revenue, non-current

 

1,094 

 

 

1,075 

Deferred rent, non-current

 

14,285 

 

 

14,453 

Notes payable, non-current

 

13,872 

 

 

13,635 

Financing derivative

 

12 

 

 

183 

Total liabilities

 

54,211 

 

 

57,981 



 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value:

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized 50,000 shares; No shares issued or outstanding 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Common Stock, $0.001 par value:

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized 1,000,000 shares; Issued and outstanding 131,872 and 116,277 shares at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively

 

132 

 

 

116 

Additional paid-in-capital

 

1,006,367 

 

 

965,752 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(38)

 

 

(32)

Accumulated deficit

 

(903,723)

 

 

(879,733)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

102,738 

 

 

86,103 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

156,949 

 

$

144,084 



 

 

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

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PACIFIC BIOSCIENCES OF CALIFORNIA, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(Unaudited)











 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 



 

Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,

(in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

2018

 

2017

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenue

 

$

16,282 

 

$

21,294 

Service and other revenue

 

 

3,080 

 

 

3,621 

Total revenue

 

 

19,362 

 

 

24,915 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product revenue

 

 

9,019 

 

 

11,362 

Cost of service and other revenue

 

 

3,047 

 

 

4,616 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

12,066 

 

 

15,978 

Gross profit

 

 

7,296 

 

 

8,937 

Operating expense:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

16,311 

 

 

16,971 

Sales, general and administrative

 

 

14,934 

 

 

15,265 

Total operating expense

 

 

31,245 

 

 

32,236 

Operating loss

 

 

(23,949)

 

 

(23,299)

Interest expense

 

 

(581)

 

 

(838)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

351 

 

 

270 

Net loss

 

 

(24,179)

 

 

(23,867)

Other comprehensive loss:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized loss on investments

 

 

(6)

 

 

(8)

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(24,185)

 

$

(23,875)



 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted net loss per share

 

$

(0.20)

 

$

(0.26)

Shares used in computing basic and diluted net loss per share

 

 

123,768 

 

 

92,970 



 

 

 

 

 

 



See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.



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PACIFIC BIOSCIENCES OF CALIFORNIA, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(Unaudited)









 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 



Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,

(in thousands)

2018

 

2017

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(24,179)

 

$

(23,867)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

1,802 

 

 

2,850 

Amortization of debt discount and financing costs

 

237 

 

 

319 

Gain on derivative

 

(171)

 

 

(148)

Stock-based compensation

 

5,282 

 

 

4,984 

Other items

 

(38)

 

 

Changes in assets and liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

4,981 

 

 

980 

Inventory

 

(2,720)

 

 

(149)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

312 

 

 

3,377 

Accounts payable

 

(942)

 

 

(89)

Accrued expenses

 

(2,402)

 

 

(4,763)

Deferred service revenue

 

(307)

 

 

(260)

Other liabilities

 

(628)

 

 

92 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(18,773)

 

 

(16,671)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of property and equipment

 

(344)

 

 

(2,668)

Purchase of investments

 

(31,547)

 

 

(10,419)

Sales of investments

 

2,442 

 

 

3,662 

Maturities of investments

 

21,700 

 

 

34,905 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

(7,749)

 

 

25,480 

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock from equity plans

 

2,487 

 

 

3,408 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock from underwritten public equity offering, net of issuance costs

 

32,986 

 

 

 —

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

35,473 

 

 

3,408 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

8,951 

 

 

12,217 

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

21,007 

 

 

21,265 

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

29,958 

 

$

33,482 



 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

25,458 

 

 

28,982 

Restricted cash at end of period

 

4,500 

 

 

4,500 

Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

29,958 

 

$

33,482 



 

 

 

 

 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities

 

 

 

 

 

Changes in unpaid property and equipment

$

319 

 

$

5,356 

Changes in deposits for property and equipment paid in prior period

$

 —

 

$

9,694 

Property and equipment paid by landlord

$

 —

 

$

12,600 

Impact from adoption of ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

$

189 

 

$

 —

Inventory transferred to (from) property and equipment

$

(343)

 

$

435 



See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

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PACIFIC BIOSCIENCES OF CALIFORNIA, INC.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(Unaudited)

NOTE 1. OVERVIEW

We design, develop and manufacture sequencing systems to help scientists resolve genetically complex problems. Based on our novel Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT®) sequencing technology, our products enable: de novo genome assembly to finish genomes in order to more fully identify, annotate and decipher genomic structures; full-length transcript analysis to improve annotations in reference genomes, characterize alternatively spliced isoforms in important gene families, and find novel genes; targeted sequencing to more comprehensively characterize genetic variations; and real-time kinetic information for epigenome characterization. Our technology provides high accuracy, ultra-long reads, uniform coverage and the ability to simultaneously detect epigenetic changes. PacBio® sequencing systems, including consumables and software, provide a simple and fast end-to-end workflow for SMRT sequencing.

The names “Pacific Biosciences,” “PacBio,” “SMRT,” “SMRTbell,” “Sequel” and our logo are our trademarks.



NOTE 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

In the opinion of management, our accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (“Financial Statements”) have been prepared on a consistent basis with our December 31, 2017 audited Consolidated Financial Statements and include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring adjustments, necessary to fairly state the information set forth herein. The Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and, as permitted by such rules and regulations, omit certain information and footnote disclosures necessary to present the statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). These Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. The results of operations for the three-month period ended March 31, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire year or any future periods.

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Pacific Biosciences and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. Translation adjustments resulting from translating foreign subsidiaries’ results of operations and assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars are immaterial for all periods presented.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes to the financial statements. Our estimates include, but are not limited to, the valuation of inventory, revenue valuation, the valuation of a financing derivative and long-term notes, the valuation and recognition of share-based compensation, the expected renewal period for service contracts, the useful lives assigned to long-lived assets, and the computation provisions for income taxes. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amount of our accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities, current, approximate fair value due to their short maturities. The carrying value of our other liabilities, non-current, approximates fair value due to the time to maturity and prevailing market rates.

The fair value hierarchy established under U.S. GAAP requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:

 

 

 

Level 1: quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;

 

 

 

Level 2: inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and

 

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Level 3: unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

We consider an active market as one in which transactions for the asset or liability occurs with sufficient frequency and volume to provide pricing information on an ongoing basis. Conversely, we view an inactive market as one in which there are few transactions for the asset or liability, the prices are not current, or price quotations vary substantially either over time or among market makers. Where appropriate, our non-performance risk, or that of our counterparty, is considered in determining the fair values of liabilities and assets, respectively.

We classify our cash deposits and money market funds within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using bank balances or quoted market prices. We classify our investments as Level 2 instruments based on market pricing and other observable inputs. We did not classify any of our investments within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy.

Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the entire fair value measurement requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

The following table sets forth the fair value of our financial assets and liabilities that were measured on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 respectively (in thousands):







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



March 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017

(in thousands)

Level 1

 

Level 2

 

Level 3

 

Total

 

Level 1

 

Level 2

 

Level 3

 

Total

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market funds

$

19,725 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

19,725 

 

$

14,858 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

14,858 

Commercial paper

 

 —

 

 

5,733 

 

 

 —

 

 

5,733 

 

 

 —

 

 

1,649 

 

 

 —

 

 

1,649 

Total cash and cash equivalents

 

19,725 

 

 

5,733 

 

 

 —

 

 

25,458 

 

 

14,858 

 

 

1,649 

 

 

 —

 

 

16,507 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

 —

 

 

27,358 

 

 

 —

 

 

27,358 

 

 

 —

 

 

20,394 

 

 

 —

 

 

20,394 

Corporate debt securities

 

 —

 

 

5,616 

 

 

 —

 

 

5,616 

 

 

 —

 

 

9,034 

 

 

 —

 

 

9,034 

US government & agency securities

 

 —

 

 

20,828 

 

 

 —

 

 

20,828 

 

 

 —

 

 

16,937 

 

 

 —

 

 

16,937 

Total investments

 

 —

 

 

53,802 

 

 

 —

 

 

53,802 

 

 

 —

 

 

46,365 

 

 

 —

 

 

46,365 

Long-term restricted cash:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

 

4,500 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

4,500 

 

 

4,500 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

4,500 

Total assets measured at fair value

$

24,225 

 

$

59,535 

 

$

 —

 

$

83,760 

 

$

19,358 

 

$

48,014 

 

$

 —

 

$

67,372 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financing derivative

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

12 

 

$

12 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

183 

 

$

183 

Total liabilities measured at fair value

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

12 

 

$

12 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

183 

 

$

183 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The estimated fair value of the Financing Derivative liability was determined using Level 3 inputs, or significant unobservable inputs.





During the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, there were no transfers between Level 1, Level 2, or Level 3 assets or liabilities reported at fair value on a recurring basis and our valuation techniques did not change compared to the prior year.

Financial Assets and Liabilities Not Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

We determined the fair value of the Notes from the debt facility that we entered into during the first quarter of 2013 using Level 3 inputs, or significant unobservable inputs. The value of the Notes was determined by comparing the difference between the fair value of the Notes with and without the Financing Derivative by calculating the respective present values from future cash flows using 9.2% and 10.3% weighted average market yield at March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. Refer to “Note 5. Notes Payable” for additional details regarding the Notes. The estimated fair value and carrying value of the Notes are as follows (in thousands):

The estimated fair value and carrying value of the Notes are as follows (in thousands):









 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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March 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017



Fair Value

 

Carrying Value

 

Fair Value

 

Carrying Value

Notes payable

$

15,971 

 

$

13,872 

 

$

15,664 

 

$

13,635 



Net Loss per Share

The following outstanding common stock options, restricted stock units, or “RSUs”, with time-based vesting and RSUs with performance-based vesting were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect. See “Note 7. Stockholders’ Equity for detailed information on RSUs with time-based vesting and RSUs with performance-based vesting







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

(in thousands)

 

2018

 

2017

 

 

 

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

28,879 

 

26,656 

 

 

 

 

RSUs with time-based vesting

 

355 

 

 —

 

 

 

 

RSUs with performance-based vesting

 

652 

 

 —

 

 

 

 



Concentration and Other Risks

For the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, one of our customers, Gene Company Limited, accounted for approximately 29% and 30% of our total revenue, respectively.  



Significant Accounting Policies

Except as noted below relating to our adoption of ASC 606, there have been no material changes to our significant accounting policies as discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.



Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases. The guidance in ASU 2016-02 supersedes the lease recognition requirements in ASC Topic 840, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires an entity to recognize assets and liabilities arising from a lease for both financing and operating leases, along with additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this standard on our consolidated financial statements. We expect to adopt this standard beginning in 2019. We do not expect that this standard will have a material impact on our operating results, but we do expect that upon adoption, it will have a material impact on our assets and liabilities. The primary effect of adoption will be the requirement to record right-of-use assets and corresponding lease obligations for current operating leases. We are currently quantifying the impact of adoption.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, which requires restricted cash to be presented with cash and cash equivalents on the statement of cash flows and disclosure of how the statement of cash flows reconciles to the balance sheet if restricted cash is shown separately from cash and cash equivalents on the balance sheet. ASU 2016-18 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard effective January 1, 2018 using the retrospective transition method by restating our condensed consolidated statements of cash flows to include restricted cash of $4.5 million in the beginning and ending cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash balances for all periods presented. As a result of adoption, net cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2017 did not change as a result of including restricted cash with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period amounts presented on the statements of cash flows. 

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” as modified by subsequently issued ASUs 2015-14, 2016-08, 2016-10, 2016-12 and 2016-20 (collectively Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC 606). ASC 606 superseded existing revenue recognition standards with a single model unless those contracts are within the scope of other standards, such as leases, insurance, collaboration arrangements and financial instruments. The revenue recognition principle in ASC 606 is that an entity recognizes

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revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that an entity determines are within the scope of Topic 606, the entity performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 using the modified retrospective method with the cumulative effect of adoption recognized as an adjustment to our accumulated deficit on January 1, 2018. Prior period financial statements and disclosures have not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The adoption of ASC 606 did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations, equity or cash flows as of the adoption date or for the three-month period ended March 31, 2018. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers.

Upon adopting ASC 606, the incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract are now deferred and amortized over the period of contract performance or a longer period if renewals are expected and the renewal commission is not commensurate with the initial commission. We classify deferred commissions as current and included it in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. At March 31, 2018, we had $0.2 million of deferred commissions included in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” which will be recognized as the related revenue is recognized. Additionally, as a practical expedient, we expense costs to obtain a contract as incurred if the amortization period would have been a year or less.

The cumulative effect of the changes made to our consolidated January 1, 2018 balance sheet for the adoption of ASC 606 were as follows (in thousands):







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance Sheet

Balance at December 31, 2017

 

Adjustments Due to ASC 606

 

Balance at January 1, 2018

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

$

2,249 

 

$

189 

 

$

2,438 

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

(879,733)

 

 

189 

 

 

(879,544)



In accordance with ASC 606, the disclosure of the impact of adoption on our condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss, condensed consolidated balance sheet and condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the period ended March 31, 2018 was as follows (in thousands):







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



For the three-month period ended March 31, 2018

Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

As Reported

 

Balances Without Adoption of ASC 606

 

Effect of Change Higher/(Lower)

Operating Expense:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales, general and administrative

$

14,934 

 

$

14,949 

 

$

(15)







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



As of March 31, 2018

Balance Sheet

As Reported

 

Balances Without Adoption of ASC 606

 

Effect of Change Higher/(Lower)

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

$

2,057 

 

$

1,853 

 

$

204 

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated deficit

$

(903,723)

 

$

(903,927)

 

$

204 



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For the three-month period ended March 31, 2018

Statement of Cash Flows

As Reported

 

Balances Without Adoption of ASC 606

 

Effect of Change Higher/(Lower)

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(24,179)

 

$

(24,194)

 

$

15 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

$

312 

 

$

297 

 

$

15 

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Impact from adopting ASC 606

$

189 

 

$

 —

 

$

189 



A summary of our revenue by category for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 is as follows (in thousands):





 

 

 

 

 



Three-month periods ended March 31,

(in thousands)

2018

 

2017 (1)

Instrument revenue

$

7,144 

 

$

12,633 

Consumable revenue

 

9,138 

  

 

8,661 

Product revenue

 

16,282 

 

 

21,294 

Service and other revenue

 

3,080 

 

 

3,621 

Total revenue

$

19,362 

 

$

24,915 



 

 

 

 

 



(1)  As noted above, prior period amounts have not been adjusted under the modified retrospective method.



A summary of our revenue by geographic location for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 is as follows:







 

 

 

 

 



Three-month periods ended March 31,

(in millions)

2018

 

2017 (1)

North America

$

7.8 

 

$

10.8 

Europe (including the Middle East and Africa)

 

4.0 

  

 

4.3 

Asia Pacific

 

7.6 

 

 

9.8 

Total

$

19.4 

 

$

24.9 



(1)  As noted above, prior period amounts have not been adjusted under the modified retrospective method.



Our revenue is generated primarily from the sale of products and services. Product revenue primarily consists of sales of our instruments and related consumables; Service and other revenue consist primarily of revenue earned from product maintenance agreements with some additional revenue from instrument lease agreements and grant revenue.

We account for a contract with a customer when there is a legally enforceable contract between the Company and the customer, the rights of the parties are identified, the contract has commercial substance, and collectability of the contract consideration is probable. Revenues are recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue.

Our instrument sales are generally sold in a bundled arrangement and commonly include the instrument, instrument accessories, installation, training, and consumables. Additionally, our instrument sale arrangements generally include a one-year period of service. For such bundled arrangements, we account for individual products and services separately if they are distinct, that is, if a product or service is separately identifiable from other items in the bundled package and if a customer can benefit from it on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer. Our customers cannot benefit from the system without installation, and installation can only be performed by us or qualified distributors. As a result, the system and installation are

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considered to be a single performance obligation recognized after installation is completed except for sales to qualified distributors, in which case the system is distinct and recognized when control has transferred to the distributor which typically occurs upon shipment. 

The consideration for bundled arrangements is allocated between separate performance obligations based on their individual standalone selling price ("SSP"). The SSP is determined based on observable prices at which we separately sell the products and services. If an SSP is not directly observable, then we will estimate the SSP by considering multiple factors including, but not limited to, overall market conditions, including geographic or regional specific factors, internal costs, profit objectives, pricing practices and other observable inputs.

We recognize revenues as the performance obligations are satisfied by transferring control of the product or service to the customer or over the term of a product maintenance agreement with a customer. Our revenue arrangements generally do not provide a right of return.

Contract liabilities and contract assets - Contract liabilities primarily consist of deferred revenue. We record deferred service revenues when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance for product maintenance agreements. Deferred service revenue is recognized over the related performance period, generally one to three years, on a straight-line basis as the Company is standing ready to provide services and a time-based measure of progress best reflects the satisfaction of the performance obligation. As of March 31, 2018, we had a total of $7.1 million deferred service revenue from our service contracts, $6.0 million of which was recorded as “deferred service revenue, current” to be recognized over the next year and the remaining $1.1 million was recorded as “deferred service revenue, non-current” to be recognized in the next 2 to 5 years. Revenue recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2018 includes $2.3 million of previously deferred revenue that was included in “deferred service revenue, current” as of December 31, 2017. Contract assets as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were not material.

Instrument lease agreements - Instrument leases are generally classified as operating-type leases and revenue from these leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the respective lease term, once the lessee takes (or has the right to take) control/possession of the property under the lease. Effectively, this occurs once the installation is complete and control of the instrument is transferred to our customers.

Other practical expedients and exemptions - Customers generally are invoiced upon acceptance of the system, which is also the start of the one-year service period. As such, there is typically not more than a one-year difference between the receipt of cash and the provision of services.  Therefore, we apply the practical expedient and do not account for any potential significant financing benefit.   However, it is noted that some customers will pre-order extended service periods at the time of the initial system sale. These customers may choose to make quarterly or annual payments, or prepay multiple years of service upfront but there is no pricing difference between these different payment options.  As such, no significant financing component is believed to exist with any of our existing arrangements.



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NOTE 3. CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND INVESTMENTS

The following tables summarize our cash, cash equivalents and investments as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (in thousands):







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



As of March 31, 2018 



 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 



Amortized

 

unrealized

 

unrealized

 

Fair



Cost

 

gains

 

losses

 

Value

Cash and cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market funds

$

19,725 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

19,725 

Commercial paper

 

5,734 

 

 

 —

 

 

(1)

 

 

5,733 

Total cash and cash equivalents

 

25,459 

 

 

 —

 

 

(1)

 

 

25,458 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

27,378 

 

 

 —

 

 

(20)

 

 

27,358 

Corporate debt securities

 

5,626 

 

 

 —

 

 

(10)

 

 

5,616 

US government & agency securities

 

20,835 

 

 

 —

 

 

(7)

 

 

20,828 

Total investments

 

53,839 

 

 

 —

 

 

(37)

 

 

53,802 

Total cash, cash equivalents and investments

$

79,298 

 

$

 —

 

$

(38)

 

$

79,260 

Long-term restricted cash:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

$

4,500 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

4,500 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



As of December 31, 2017 



 

 

Gross

 

Gross

 

 



Amortized

 

unrealized

 

unrealized

 

Fair



Cost

 

gains

 

losses

 

Value

Cash and cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and money market funds

$

14,858 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

14,858 

Commercial paper

 

1,649 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,649 

Total cash and cash equivalents

 

16,507 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

16,507 

Investments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

20,408 

 

 

 —

 

 

(14)

 

 

20,394 

Corporate debt securities

 

9,043 

 

 

 —

 

 

(9)

 

 

9,034 

US government & agency securities

 

16,946 

 

 

 —

 

 

(9)

 

 

16,937 

Total investments

 

46,397 

 

 

 —

 

 

(32)

 

 

46,365 

Total cash, cash equivalents and investments

$

62,904 

 

$

 —

 

$

(32)

 

$

62,872 

Long-term restricted cash:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash

$

4,500 

 

$

 —

 

$

 —

 

$

4,500 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



The following table summarizes the contractual maturities of our cash equivalents and available-for-sale investments, excluding money market funds, as of March 31, 2018:





 

 



 

 

(in thousands)

Fair Value

Due in one year or less

$

59,535 



Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because issuers may have the right to call or prepay obligations without call or prepayment penalties. 



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NOTE 4.  BALANCE SHEET COMPONENTS



Inventory



As of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017,  our inventory consisted of the following components:







 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 



March 31,

 

December 31,

(in thousands)

2018

 

2017

Purchased materials

$

7,356 

 

$

8,884 

Work in process

 

11,061 

 

 

9,994 

Finished goods

 

7,513 

 

 

4,187 

Inventory

$

25,930 

 

$

23,065 



NOTE 5. NOTES PAYABLE

As of March 31, 2018, payments due under our notes payable, which include interest and principal, are as follows:







 

 



Amount

Years ending December 31,

(in thousands)

Remaining of 2018

$

1,047 

2019

 

1,400 

2020

 

16,491 

Total remaining payments

 

18,938 

Less: interest and discounts

 

(5,066)

Notes payable

$

13,872 





NOTE 6. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

As of March 31, 2018, the future annual minimum lease payments under all noncancelable operating leases with remaining term in excess of one year are as follows:







 

 



Amount

Years ending December 31,

(in thousands)

Remaining of 2018

$

5,121 

2019

 

6,930 

2020

 

7,056 

2021

 

7,272 

2022

 

7,488 

Thereafter

 

39,222 

Total minimum lease payments

$

73,089 



Rent expense for each of the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 was $1.6 million.  

Legal



USITC Proceedings

On November 2, 2016, we filed a complaint against Oxford Nanopore Technologies Ltd. (“ONT Ltd.”), Oxford Nanopore Technologies, Inc. (“ONT Inc.”) and Metrichor, Ltd. (“Metrichor” and, together with ONT Ltd. and ONT Inc., “ONT”) with the U.S. International Trade Commission (“USITC”) for patent infringement. On December 5, 2016, the USITC provided notice that an investigation had been instituted based on the complaint. We sought exclusionary relief with respect to several ONT products, including ONT’s MinION and PromethION devices. The complaint was based on our U.S. Patent No. 9,404,146, entitled

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“Compositions and methods for nucleic acid sequencing” which covers novel methods for sequencing single nucleic acid molecules using linked double-stranded nucleic acid templates, providing improved sequencing accuracy. On March 1, 2017, we filed an amended complaint to add a second patent in the same patent family, U.S. Patent No. 9,542,527, which was granted on January 10, 2017, to the investigation. We sought, among other things, an exclusion order permanently barring entry of infringing ONT products into the United States, and a cease and desist order preventing ONT from advertising and selling infringing products in the United States. On May 23, 2017, the Administrative Law Judge (“ALJ”) assigned to the matter issued an order construing certain claim terms of the asserted patents. On June 8, 2017, ONT filed a summary determination motion to terminate the proceedings based on the ALJ’s claim construction decision, and we did not oppose the motion. The ALJ granted the motion on July 19, 2017, and, on July 31, 2017, we filed a petition to review with the USITC to correct what we believe was an incorrect construction of the claims. On September 5, 2017, the USITC issued a notice granting our petition to review the ALJ’s claim construction decision. On February 7, 2018, the USITC issued a notice indicating that it had determined to adopt the ALJ’s claim construction and terminating the investigation. On February 13, 2018, we filed a petition to appeal the USITC’s ruling to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.



U.S. District Court Proceedings

On March 15, 2017, we filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware against ONT Inc. for patent infringement. The complaint is based on our U.S. Patent No. 9,546,400 (the “400 Patent”), entitled “Nanopore sequencing using n-mers” which covers novel methods for nanopore sequencing of nucleic acid molecules using the signals from multiple monomeric units. This patent was granted on January 17, 2017. We are seeking remedies including injunctive relief, damages and costs. On May 8, 2017, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint, alleging that the asserted patent claims recite patent ineligible subject matter. On November 9, 2017, the judge denied ONT Inc.’s motion to dismiss.

Related to this proceeding, on March 15, 2018, ONT Inc. filed a petition to institute an inter partes review with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, alleging invalidity of the ‘400 Patent.

On September 25, 2017, we filed a second complaint in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware against ONT Inc. for patent infringement. The complaint is based on our U.S. Patent No. 9,678,056 (the “056 Patent”) entitled “Control of Enzyme Translation in Nanopore Sequencing”, granted June 13, 2017, and U.S. Patent No. 9,738,929 entitled “Nucleic Acid Sequence Analysis”, granted August 22, 2017. We are seeking remedies including injunctive relief, damages and costs. On December 14, 2017, the defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint, alleging that the asserted patent claims in the 9,738,929 patent recite patent ineligible subject matter. On January 5, 2018, we filed our opposition to this motion. A hearing on this motion was held on February 27, 2018.  On March 22, 2018, the judge denied ONT Inc.’s motion to dismiss. On March 28, 2018, we added a claim for infringement of our U.S. Patent No. 9,772,323 (the “‘323 Patent”), also entitled “Nanopore sequencing using n-mers.” On April 25, 2018, ONT Inc. filed its answer, defenses and counterclaims, seeking declaratory judgements of non-infringement and invalidity of the asserted patents and unenforceability of the ‘056 and ‘323 patents based on alleged inequitable conduct before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, as well as antitrust and unfair competition counterclaims.

A trial for the U.S. District Court matters is scheduled to occur in March 2020.



UK and German Court Proceedings

On February 2, 2017, we filed a claim in the High Court of England and Wales against ONT Ltd. and Metrichor for infringement of Patent EP(UK) 3 045 542, which is in the same patent family as the patents asserted in the USITC action referred to above.  We are seeking remedies including injunctive relief, damages, and costs. On March 27, 2017, the defendants in the case filed their defense and counterclaim, denying infringement and seeking a declaration that the asserted patent is invalid. We filed our reply and defense to counterclaim on April 12, 2017.  A case management conference was held on June 13, 2017.  On August 31, 2017 we added a claim for infringement of a newly granted divisional, EP(UK) 3 170 904.   On December 22, 2017, ONT Ltd. added to the action a request for declaration of non-infringement of its 1D2 product. On January 12, 2018 we served reply to ONT Ltd.’s request for a declaration of non-infringement, asserting infringement of both patents by ONT’s 1D2 product. A trial for these matters is scheduled to occur in May 2018. 

On April 21, 2017, ONT Ltd. and Harvard University filed a claim against us in the High Court of England and Wales for infringement of Patent EP(UK) 1 192 453, a patent owned by Harvard University and entitled “Molecular and atomic scale evaluation of biopolymers,” and for which ONT Ltd. alleges it holds an exclusive license.  ONT Ltd. and Harvard University are seeking remedies including injunctive relief, damages, and costs. On April 25, 2017, ONT Ltd. announced that it also had filed a claim against us in the District Court of Mannheim, Germany, for infringement of the German version of the patent.  On November 2, 2017, we filed our statement of defense in the German infringement matter and we also filed a separate nullity action in Germany to establish that the EP 1 192 453 patent is invalid.  On December 6, 2017, we filed a cross-complaint in the German infringement matter alleging ONT Ltd.’s infringement in Germany of our EP 3 045 542 patent.  The trial date for the German infringement matter and cross-complaint is set for July 27, 2018.  A trial for the UK matter is scheduled to occur in March 2019.

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Related to these proceedings, on August 15, 2017, ONT Ltd. filed a notice of opposition to our EP 3 045 542 patent with the European Patent Office, and on August 16, 2017, an anonymous party filed a second notice of opposition to the same patent, each alleging invalidity of the patent.  On April 5, 2018, we filed our response to the combined opposition.

Litigation is inherently unpredictable, and it is too early in the proceedings to predict the outcome of these lawsuits or any impact they may have on us. As such, the estimated financial effect associated with these complaints cannot be made as of the date of filing of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Litigation is a significant ongoing expense, recognized in sales, general and administrative expense, with an uncertain outcome, and has been in the past and may in the future be a material expense for the Company. Management believes this investment is important to protect the Company’s intellectual property position, even recognizing the uncertainty of the outcome.

From time to time, we may also be involved in a variety of other claims, lawsuits, investigations and proceedings relating to securities laws, product liability, patent infringement, contract disputes, employment and other matters that arise in the normal course of our business. In addition, third parties may, from time to time, assert claims against us in the form of letters and other communications. We record a provision for contingent losses when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We currently do not believe that the ultimate outcome of any of the matters described above is probable or reasonably estimable, or that these matters will have a material adverse effect on our business; however, the results of litigation and claims are inherently unpredictable. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of litigation and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.



NOTE 7. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY



Underwritten Public Equity Offering

In August 2017, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC pursuant to which we may, from time to time, sell up to an aggregate of $150.0 million of our common stock, preferred stock, depository shares, warrants, units or debt securities. On August 18, 2017, the registration statement was declared effective by the SEC, which allows us to access the capital markets for the three-year period following this effective date.

In February 2018, we entered into an underwriting agreement,  relating to the public offering of 12,500,000 shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, at a price to the public of $2.40 per share. Under the terms of the underwriting agreement, we also granted the Underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 1,875,000 shares of our common stock, which was subsequently exercised in full, and the offering as well as the sale of shares of common stock subject to the Underwriters’ option, closed in February 2018. In total, we sold 14.4 million shares of our common stock at a price of $2.40 per share. We paid a commission equal to 4% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock under the underwriting agreement. The total net proceeds to us from the offering after deducting the underwriting discount were approximately $33.1 million, which excludes approximately $0.3 million of offering expenses. At March 31, 2018, $134,000 of the $0.3 million offering expense was paid.  

Subject to certain exceptions set forth in our Facility Agreement, holders of our Notes may elect to receive up to 25% of the net proceeds from financing activities that include an equity component as prepayment of the Notes to be applied first, to accrued and unpaid interest and second, to principal. However, in February 2018 holders representing a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Notes waived such right in connection with the issuance and sale of shares of common stock in our public offering.



Equity Plans

As of March 31, 2018, we had three active equity compensation plans: the 2010 Equity Incentive Plan (“2010 Plan”), the 2010 Outside Director Equity Incentive Plan  (“2010 Director Plan”), and the 2010 Employee Stock Purchase Plan  (“ESPP”). Under the 2010 Plan, with the approval of the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors, we may grant restricted stock, RSU, stock appreciation rights and new shares of common stock upon exercise of stock options.

In January 2018, an additional 5.8 million shares were reserved under the 2010 Plan, an additional 1.2 million shares were reserved under the 2010 Director Plan and an additional 2.3 million shares were reserved under the ESPP.



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Stock Options



The following table summarizes stock option activity for all our stock option plans for the three-month period ended March 31, 2018 (in thousands, except per share amounts):





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

Stock Options Outstanding



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted



Shares available

 

Number

 

 

 

 

average



for grant

 

of shares

 

Exercise price

 

exercise price

Balances, December 31, 2017

6,795 

 

25,404 

 

$

 1.1616.00 

 

$

6.10 

Additional shares reserved 

6,976 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Options granted

(3,873)

 

3,873 

 

 

2.542.63

 

 

2.55 

Options exercised

—  

 

(106)

 

 

1.162.52

 

 

2.36 

Options canceled

292 

 

(292)

 

 

2.5216.0 

 

 

6.07 

Balances, March 31, 2018

10,190 

 

28,879 

 

$

 1.1616.00 

 

$

5.63 



Restricted Stock Units, or “RSUs” 



Time-based RSUs 

Beginning in the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors has approved awards of RSUs with time-based vesting from the 2010 Plan to certain employees. Each RSU represents one equivalent share of our common stock to be awarded after the vesting period. These RSUs vest over four years at a rate of 25% annually. The fair value for these RSUs is based on the closing price of our common stock on the date of grant. We measure compensation expense for these RSUs at fair value on the date of grant and recognize the expense over the expected vesting period on a straight-line basis. The RSUs do not entitle participants to the rights of holders of common stock, such as voting rights, until the shares are issued. For RSUs that vest, we withhold a number of shares of common stock equal in value to the amount of the minimum statutory tax withholding obligations that arise due to such vesting, and issue shares of common stock for the remainder of the vested amount. The settlement of vested RSUs on a net share basis results in fewer shares issued by us.

During the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors approved awards of 355,000 time-based RSUs from the 2010 Plan to certain of our employees. The fair value of the time-based RSUs was determined using the stock price of our common stock on the date of the grant, which was $2.54 per share for the grant date of February 15, 2018 and $2.63 per share for the grant date of March 15, 2018.  For the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, we recorded compensation expense of $19,000 related to time-based RSUs.



Performance-based RSUs 

During the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors approved awards of RSUs with performance-based vesting from the 2010 Plan to certain employees. Each RSU represents one equivalent share of our common stock to be awarded upon vesting at the end of the certain performance periods, if specific performance goals set by the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors are achieved. No RSUs with performance-based vesting will vest if the performance goals are not met. The fair value of these RSUs is based on the closing price of our common stock on the date of grant. We make a quarterly probability assessment as to whether the performance goals will be achieved. Changes in our assessment of the probability of vesting results in adjustments to stock-based compensation, which may include either a cumulative catch up of expense or a reduction of expense depending on whether the likelihood of vesting has increased or decreased, that is recognized in the period such determination is made. The RSUs do not entitle participants to the rights of holders of common stock, such as voting rights, until the shares are issued. The RSUs do not entitle participants to the rights of holders of common stock, such as voting rights, until the shares are issued.

During the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors approved awards of 651,839 performance-based RSUs from the 2010 Plan to certain of our employees. The fair value of the performance-based RSUs was determined using the stock price of our common stock on the date of the grant which was $2.54 for the grant date of February 15, 2018 and $2.63 for the grant date of March 15, 2018.  For the three-month period ended March 31, 2018, we recognized compensation expense of $90,000 related to performance-based RSUs. As of March 31, 2018, all 651,839 performance-based RSUs remained unvested.



ESPP shares

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Shares issued under our ESPP totaled 1,113,790  and 750,005 shares during the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018  and 2017, respectively. As of March 31, 2018,  2,513,677 shares of our common stock remain available for issuance under our ESPP.

Stock-Based Compensation

The following table summarizes the stock-based compensation expense for stock options, RSUs and shares from the ESPP for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively (in thousands): 





 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 



Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,



2018

 

2017

Cost of revenue

$

664 

 

$

523 

Research and development

 

2,222 

 

 

2,030 

Sales, general and administrative

 

2,396 

 

 

2,431 

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

5,282 

 

$

4,984 



We estimated the fair value of employee stock options on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards. The fair value of employee stock options was estimated using the following weighted average assumptions:





 

 

 



 

 

 



Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,

Stock Option

2018

 

2017

Expected term in years

5.2

 

6.1

Expected volatility

67%

 

70%

Risk-free interest rate

2.5%

 

2.1%

Dividend yield

 



 

 

 

We estimate the value of employee stock purchase rights on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The fair value of shares to be purchased under our ESPP was estimated using the following assumptions:





 

 

 



 

 

 



Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,

ESPP

2018

 

2017

Expected term in years

0.5-2.0

 

0.5-2.0

Expected volatility

67%

 

70%

Risk-free interest rate

1.9%-2.2%

 

0.8%-1.3%

Dividend yield

 

























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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and those in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this report, including information with respect to our products, plans and strategy for our business and related financing, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, including statements regarding our expected financial results in future periods. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “seeks,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements.

Overview

We design, develop and manufacture sequencing systems to help scientists resolve genetically complex problems. Based on our novel Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT®) sequencing technology, our products enable: de novo genome assembly to finish genomes in order to more fully identify, annotate and decipher genomic structures; full-length transcript analysis to improve annotations in reference genomes, characterize alternatively spliced isoforms in important gene families, and find novel genes; targeted sequencing to more comprehensively characterize genetic variations; and real-time kinetic information for epigenome characterization. Our technology provides high accuracy, ultra-long reads, uniform coverage and the ability to simultaneously detect epigenetic changes. PacBio® sequencing systems, including consumables and software, provide a simple and fast end-to-end workflow for SMRT sequencing.  

In February 2018, we closed an underwritten public equity follow-on offering pursuant to which we sold, in total, 14.4 million shares of our common stock at a price of $2.40 per share. We paid a commission equal to 4% of the gross proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock. The total net proceeds to us from the offering after deducting the underwriting discount were approximately $33.1 million, which excludes approximately $0.3 million of offering expenses. At March 31, 2018, $134,000 of the $0.3 million offering expense was paid.   



Basis of Presentation

Revenue

During the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017, product revenue was primarily derived from the sale of 1) Sequel instruments, and 2) consumables associated with Sequel and RSII instruments. Service and other revenue was primarily derived from product maintenance agreements sold on our installed instruments.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue reflects the direct cost of product components, third-party manufacturing services and our internal manufacturing overhead and customer service infrastructure costs incurred to produce, deliver, maintain and support our instruments, consumables, and services. There are no incremental costs associated with our contractual revenue; all product development costs are reflected in research and development expense.

Manufacturing overhead is predominantly comprised of labor and facility costs. We determine and capitalize manufacturing overhead into inventory based on a standard cost model that approximates actual costs. 

Service costs include the direct costs of components used in support, repair and maintenance of customer instruments as well as the cost of personnel, materials, shipping and support infrastructure necessary to support the installed customer base.

Research and Development Expense

Research and development expense consists primarily of expenses for personnel engaged in the development of our SMRT Sequencing technology, the design and development of our future products and current product enhancements. These expenses also include prototype-related expenditures, development equipment and supplies, facilities costs and other related overhead. We expense research and development costs during the period in which the costs are incurred. However, we defer and capitalize non-refundable advance payments made for research and development activities until the related goods are received or the related services are rendered.

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Sales, General and Administrative Expense 

Sales, general and administrative expenses include costs for sales, marketing and administrative personnel, sales and marketing activities, tradeshow expenses, legal expenses, regulatory fees and general corporate expenses.

Interest Expense

Interest expense is primarily related to our debt facility and includes the amortization of debt discount and other related costs. To a lesser extent, through the second quarter of 2017, these amounts also include interest expense relating to our facility financing obligations resulting from a lease agreement entered into in 2010.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Other income (expense), net consists primarily of interest income earned on cash and investments, accretion of discounts and amortization of premiums related to investments, net gains or losses on foreign currency transactions, net gains or losses resulting from changes in the estimated fair value of the financing derivative and foreign income taxes.

Income Taxes

Except for the three-month period ended September 30, 2015, we have incurred net losses in every quarter since inception and have not recorded any U.S. federal or state income tax benefits for such losses as they have been fully offset by valuation allowances.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our unaudited Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The preparation of these Financial Statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our critical accounting policies and estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.



Revenue Recognition

We adopted FASB ASC 606,  Revenue from Contracts with Customers on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. Please see "Revenue Recognition" policy in the Note 2 “Summary of significant Accounting Policies” of Item 1. Financial Statements.

Except as noted above, there have been no other material changes to our significant accounting policies as discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.







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Results of Operations

Comparison of the three-month periods ended March 31, 2018 and 2017





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Three-Month Periods Ended March 31,

 

$ Change

 

% Change

(in thousands, except percentages)

2018

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 



 

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenue

$

16,282 

 

$

21,294 

 

$

(5,012)

 

(24%)

Service and other revenue